Abusir – Egypt
The necropolis of Memphis, the Old Kingdom’s capital, stretches 30km along the Nile including Abu-Rawash, Giza, Zawyet el-Aryan, Abu Ghurab, Abusir, Dahshur and Saqqara. Abusir, whose ancient name was Per-Usire or “Place of Osiris”, is the location of several pyramids from the 5th Dynasty and two solar or sun-temples. The complex is approximately 1.5 kilometer square and sits on a sedimentary plateau several kilometers north of Saqqara and, like it, served as one of the main elite cemeteries for the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis.
Saqqara – Egypt
The Great Step Pyramid Complex at Saqqara is one of those superstars of Egyptian monuments that is almost always on the itinerary of antiquity tours to Egypt, and for good reason. Few monuments hold a place in human history as significant as that of this Pyramid. It can be said without exaggeration that the Step Pyramid complex constitutes a milestone in the evolution of monumental stone architecture, both in Egypt and in the world as a whole.
Meidum – Egypt
At Meidum, 50 km south of Dashur, King Snefru (the first king of the 4th Dynasty) built Egypt’s first true, or straight-sided, pyramid. Because of its remoteness, it is not seen as part of the Memphite necropolis, which stretches from Abu Rawash to Dashur, even though one pyramid and several mastabas have been built there during the Old Kingdom.
Dahshur – Egypt
About 2km to the east of Snefru’s Bent Pyramid at Dahshur is one of a series of three Middle Kingdom pyramids, a dark ruined structure rising from the sand and looking more like a rocky outcrop than the remains of a pyramid. Often called the Black Pyramid, Amenemhet III’s monument was built with a core of dark unfired mudbrick, but without the stabilising stone framework of other structures of its type. Its strange shape is mostly due to the effects of weathering after its outer limestone layer was removed by robbers.
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Dahshur – Egypt
The Bent Pyramid was probably the first planned from the outset to be a true pyramid, with smooth sides. This represents a glorious period in the evolution of the pyramid, comparable to that when Djsoer’s architect, Imhotep, built the Step Pyramid at Saqqara. The Bent Pyramid was probably either the first or second of Snefru’s pyramids, depending on who built the Medium Pyramid. It was almost certainly built prior to his other project at Dahshur, the Red Pyramid.
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Dahshur – Egypt
Soon after the bend in the Bent Pyramid began to take shape, Snefru, one of the most prolific builders of Ancient Egypt, ordered another pyramid to be built nearby, the Red Pyramid. It would be Snefru’s third attempt at a classic, smooth-sided pyramid, and it was a charm—an elegant precursor to the Great Pyramids at Giza. Also known as the North Pyramid, it is the third largest pyramid in Egypt and one of the few whose interior is open to visitors.
Istanbul – Turkey
Istanbul is the kind of city that combines the old and the new, the beauty of the west and mysterious charm of Asia. Not only is it the largest city in Turkey but it is also the center of touristic, economical and social activities. It is a the city that is both joining The Middle Eastern Turkey to the European continent. The Bosphorus waterfront is one of the busiest waterways between the seal of Marmara and the Black Sea.
Petra – Jordan
Although most attention has focused on the finely built castles of the central and northern regions of the Crusader States, many other fortifications were erected with remarkable speed and little apparent expense. The most obvious example is Al-Wueira castle in Jordan which lies about 1.5 km from Petra, on the way to Siq Al-Barid dominating the eastern summit of Al-Wueira ridge. It is not surprising that many visitors to Petra make a detour to look at the remains of it and I’m going to tell you why.